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Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2018 19:46
by captpete
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This is a continuation of my Montpazier https://forum.minetest.net/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=16794 project I'm working on for my private (family) server. A Bastide is a plannned, geometric and fortified town from the 12th and 13th century when the English Kings and the French both held territory in France. You can read more about bastides in Lecture Notes of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Melbourne, #705-117 "Culture & History of Urban Planning" ©1999 by C.M.Gutjahr. It's a freely accessible pdf on http://artserve.anu.edu.au/htdocs/bycou ... Cities.pdf page 23.

My project will be a faithful (1m=1block scale) representation some of the bastides just before the hundred years war, fought during the middle of the 14th to the 15th century. I prefer this period due to the larger settlement before the Great Famine of 1310s, the Hundred Years War of 1330-1460 and the Black Plague outbreaks of the mid 13th century - not so many settlements (or people) then.

As in my previous project of this period the game part was to create bastides, town houses and farming gardens as specified by the actual designs and charters of the Kings.

Here's a transliteration of part of a typical Charter

You are allocated a plot within the town to build your own house, and you also had a ‘potager’ (an allotment-sized patch of land beneath the walls to grow fruit and veg), access to a field to cultivate crops or raise livestock and the right to go hunting and foraging in the woods beyond. Any surplus to your and your family's needs could be sold or bartered in the market, held every week in the central square.


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Edward I of England was also Duke of Aquitane and built hundreds of basties, especially along the Garonne Valley in a checkerboard layout based on a standard module with house plots of 8m frontage and a depth of 24m. The streets 6m wide and the lanes at the rear of houses were 2m. Walls and fortified gates were mostly added after the start of the Hundred-Years War. The King would give you a plot in the town for your residence, supplying the stone and wood (see attachment in WorldEdit format).

The color scheme of the buildings was the three basic Gothic colors of red/yellow/blue. The ground floor was for commerce or trade, the upper floor was the family residence and servants, if any, were in the attic. The Market Square houses had colonnades in the frontage to shade the street and there were always several plots allocated to a church which was not built on the square.

Besides the above mentioned Monpazier, built in 1284, which I will detail in it's current state later on, there is the village of Molieres, built in 1284, a never completed bastide. Also planned but not well along are Beaumont en Perigod (Dordoge) 1272, Castilhonés 1259, Monflanquin 1269, and Villeréal 1267.

Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2018 20:16
by captpete
--- Town Square of Monpazier ---
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--- Plans, Medieval Dwellings ---
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--- House Plans, 13th C. Montpazier ---
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Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2018 20:39
by captpete
Monpazier

--- Town Plan of Monpazier in 1284-5 ----------------------- Current Build ---
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Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2018 21:15
by captpete
Molières

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Molières was originally an English country house founded in 1284 by the seneschal Jean I de Grailly at the request of King Edward I of England who endowed the city with a charter of freedoms and customs dated November 27, 1285. The country house will not manage to crystallize enough population for the city to develop. Therefore, this is a failed attempt at a bastide and never will develop to the point of a fortified town but will have a castle built in the 14th century (which I will not be modelling).

--- Map of Molieres --------------------------------------------------------- Current Map ---
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Note that the Map is not consistent with my research of photos and documents - the build is closer in the areas built.

Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Thu Nov 29, 2018 14:36
by captpete
Molières, cont.

Church of Notre-Dame de la Nativité

--- my build of the street of the Notre Dame of the Nativity Church in the 13th c. ---
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--- Notre Dame of the Nativity Church, Today ---
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--- Rear of the church showing buttresses as it was built over the void below a cliff edge ---
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The church shows all of the characteristics of French Gothic style architecture: ribbed vaults; flying buttresses; the portals and tympanum; stained glass and a rose window. I've modeled those with varying success within the constraint of MT.

--- A transliteration of several documents written in French. ---

The building originally had a single nave 35 meters by 12 meters, ending in the east by a flat end, and confined in front by two towers of square plan. The four spans of the nave, unusually large, were covered with pointed arches and reinforced by rib vaults. A walkway made it possible to communicate from the North tower to the South tower, which was destroyed in the 19th century.

Unlike many bastide churches, the Church of Notre-Dame de la Nativité is not located near the central square, but far from the main street. The importance of this church - able to hold 800 people - may suggest that it was built to contain the many inhabitants of a bastide which had failed, hence the beginning of its construction at the foundation of the bastide (late 13th century). In 1580 the church was burned by Captain Chans de Monsac. The vaulting, probably made of stone, has disappeared and was replaced in 1771 by wood.

A drawing by Leo Drouyn dated 1846 shows the half-destroyed church. In 1850 an estimate shows the major repairs to the building. A work campaign in 1888 shows a polygonal choir is inscribed inside the walls at right angles. In 1982, the roofing was demolished and replaced.

Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Thu Nov 29, 2018 15:26
by captpete
Molières, cont.

Church of Notre-Dame de la Nativité, cont.

--- Front portal and tympanum plus the rose window ---
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--- Rose window and walkway between towers ---
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--- Rose window and walkway between towers, Today ---
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Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Thu Nov 29, 2018 15:41
by captpete
Molières, cont.

Church of Notre-Dame de la Nativité, cont.

--- Front Portal andTympanum, Today ---
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--- Church Interior, as modeled ---
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Note: I couldn't get 4 vaults in this time but hopefully I'll do it when I revisit it.

--- Church Interior, Today ---
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Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Thu Nov 29, 2018 22:05
by dawgdoc
You continue to great work. It's great to see you able to be back to building with your family.

Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Fri Nov 30, 2018 21:24
by captpete
This bastide was started by one of my family and she asked me to do the church for her a while ago. This is what I came up with a while ago. I give them a chest of raw materials, basically the same as given in the charter, for each normal building. I then let them check out my sample building schematic and the source material. They check out the town on Google Earth and decide which structures to build. I create the map with the roads and the basic Market Square and foundation grid (all these bastides are on a standard grid) so they have a base to start with. The map is 50k x 50k blocks as shown below with each town marked. Molières is in the upper right with Monpazier middle-right. I used Global Mapper to create this map and the DEM for importing to WorldPainter. The I use the [mcimport] mod to create the MineTest map.

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Re: Bastides of 13th C. Dutchy of Aquitane in France

PostPosted: Sat Dec 01, 2018 00:40
by duane
Very impressive.